There are lots of methods used in the industry to make ITO glass, such as
- Chemical vapor deposition
- Thermal evaporation / vacuum evaporation
- Pulsed laser deposition, PLD
- Spray pyrolysis
- Thermal oxidation etc.
Each above-mentioned method has its own advantages. Currently, the method widely used in the industry is the sputtering because it requires short process time and low process temperature. Also, the sputtered ITO film has good film density, good film adhesion, good uniformity of multi-component films which is the most ideal way to produce large size ITO glass.